General Reference Works:

Anchor Bible, The (best current general commentary)
Atlas of the Biblical World
Báez-Camargo, Gonzalo. Archæological Commentary on the Bible
Ballou, Robert. The Bible of the World
Barnstone, Willis. The Other Bible
Blaiklock, et al. The New International Dictionary of Biblical Archæology
Brownley, Geoffrey W., et al. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia(conservative, but useful).
Catholic Encyclopedia, The (New Catholic Encyclopedia)
Cornfield, G. Archaeology of the Bible Book by Book
Corswant, W. Dictionary of Life in Bible Times
deVaux, Roland, et al. Atlas of the Biblical World
Dictionary of Biblical Archaeology
Encyclopaedia Judaica
Encyclopedia of Islam

Gentz, William H. The Dictionary of Bible and Religion
Gottcent, John H. The Bible as Literature: A Selective Bibliography
Harper’s Bible Commentary
Illustrated Bible Dictionary, The
Interpreter’s Bible, The
(exegesis only, not exposition, somewhat dated)
Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, The (somewhat dated)
Jerome Biblical Commentary ,The
Mircea Eliade. A History of Religious Ideas
Moore, George Foot. History of Religions (2 vols.)Oxford Bible Atlas
Perego, Giacomo. Interdisciplinary Atlas of the Bible: Scripture, History, Geography, Archaeology, and Theology
Scofield, C. I. Scofield Study Bible
Unger, Merril F. & William White, Jr. An Expository Dictionary of Biblical Words
Woude, A. S. Van Der, ed. The World of the Bible


General Introductions, etc.:

Alter, Robert. The Art of Biblical Narrative
Alter, Robert & Frank Kermode. The Literary Guide to the Bible
Bartlett, David Lyon. The Shape of Scriptural Authority
Bloom, Harold. The Bible.
Caird, George Bradford. The Language and Imagery of the Bible
Collins, Adela Yarbro. Feminist Perspectives on Biblical Scholarship
Damrosch, David. The Narrative Covenant: Transformations of Genre in the Growth of Biblical Literature
Diel, Paul. Symbolism in the Bible: The Universality of Symbolic Language and Its Psychological Significance
Eliade, Mircea. A History of Religious Ideas
Fiorenza, Elisabeth Schüssler: Bread Not Stone: The Challenge of Feminist Biblical Interpretation
Friedman, Richard Elliott. The Creation of Sacred Literature: Composition and Redaction of the Biblical Text
Frye, Northrup. The Great Code: The Bible and Literature
Frye, Northrup. Words with Power: Being a Second Study of “The Bible and Literature”
Gabel, John B. The Bible as Literature: An Introduction
Gottcent, John H. The Bible: A Literary Study
Greenspahn, Frederick E. Scripture in the Jewish and Christian Traditions: Authority, Interpretation, Relevance
Gros Louis, Kenneth R. R. Literary Interpretations of Biblical Narratives
Keegan, Terence J. Interpreting the Bible: A Popular Introduction to Biblical Hermeneutics
Kort, Wesley A. Story, Text, and Scripture: Literary Interests in Biblical Narrative
Kugel, James L. The Idea of Biblical Poetry: Parallelism and Its History
Leach, Edmund Ronald. Structuralist Interpretations of Biblical Myth
Longman, Tremper. Literary Approaches to Biblical Interpretation
McConnell, Frank. The Bible and the Narrative Tradition
McKnight, Edgar V. The Bible and the Reader: An Introduction to Literary Criticism
Meade, David G. Pseudonymity and Canon: An Investigation into the Relationship of Authorship and Authority in Jewish and Earliest Christian Tradition
Molenkott, Virginia R. The Divine Feminine: The Biblical Imagery of God as Female
Murphy, Cullen. The Word According to Eve
Norton, David. A History of the bible as Literature.
Oden, Robert A. The Bible Without Theology: The Theological Tradition and Alternatives to It
Poland, Lynn M. Literary Criticism and Biblical Hermeneutics: A Critique of Formalist Approaches
Reed, Walter L. Dialogues of the Word: The Bible as Literature According to Bakhtin
Rendtdorff, Rolf. The Old Testament: An Introduction
Roberts, Ruth: The Biblical Web
Rogerson, John. The Study and Use of the Bible
Russell, Letty M. Feminist Interpretation of the Bible
Ryken, Leland & Tremper Longman III, eds. A Complete Literary Guide to the Bible.
Seale, Morris S. Qur’an and Bible: Studies in Interpretation and Dialogue
Sternberg, Meir. The Poetics of Biblical Narrative: Ideological Literature and the Drama of Reading
Thompson, Leonard L. Introducing Biblical Literature: A More Fantastic Country
Turner, Nicholas. Handbook for Biblical Studies
Wadsworth, Michael. Ways of Reading the Bible
Westman, Heinz. The Structure of Biblical Myths: The Ontogenesis of the Psyche
Wilder, Amos Niven. The Bible and the Literary Critic

Jewish Scriptures:

Ackerman, James S., et al. Teaching the Old Testament in English Classes
Ackroyd, Peter R. Exile and Restoration: A Study in Hebrew Thought in the Sixth Century B.C.E.
Aho, James A. Religious Mythology and the Art of War: Comparative Religious Symbolisms of Military Violence
Alter, Robert. The Art of Biblical Poetry
Anderson, B.W. Understanding the Old Testament
Ashby, Godfrey. Sacrifice: Its Nature and Purpose
Atkins, P. W. The Creation
Berlin, Adele. The Dynamics of Biblical Parallelism
Blank, Sheldon H. Jeremiah: Man and Prophet
Blank, Sheldon H. Prophetic Faith in Isaiah
Bock, Emil. Genesis, Creation and the Patriarchs
Bloom, Harold. Genesis
Bloom, Harold. Exodus
Brewer, Julius A. The Literature of the Old Testament, 3rd ed.
Bright, John. History of Israel (conservative)
Burrows, Millar. What Mean These Stones?
Campbell, D. B. J. The Old Testament for Modern Readers
Carroll, Robert P. When Prophecy Failed: Cognitive Dissonance in the Prophetic Traditions of the Old Testament
Comay, Joan. Who’s Who in the Old Testament*
Crüsemann, Frank. The Torah: Theology and History of Old Testament Law.
Culley, Robert C. Anthropological Perspectives on Old Testament Prophecy
deVaux, Roland. Ancient Israel
deVaux, Roland. The Early History of Israel: To the Period of the Judges
Fisch, Harold. Poetry with a Purpose: Biblical Poetics and Interpretation
Fishbane, Michael A. Text and Texture: Close Readings of Selected Biblical Texts
Fohrer, George. Introduction to the Old Testament
Fox, Michael V. The Song of Songs and the Ancient Egyptian Love Songs
Fretheim, Terence E. Deuteronomic History. Friedman, Richard Elliott. Who Wrote the Bible?
Gray, John. Joshua, Judges & Ruth
Grossberg, Daniel. Centripetal and Centrifugal Structures in Biblical Poetry
Habel, Norman C. Literary Criticism of the Old Testament
Halperin, Baruch. The First Historians: The Hebrew Bible and History
Jacobson, Dan. The Story of the Stories: The Chosen People and Its God
Kaiser, Otto. Isaiah 1-12, A Commentary
Kaiser, Otto. Isaiah 13-39, A Commentary
Kenyon, Kathleen Mary. The Bible and Recent Archeology
King, Philip J. Amos, Hosea, Micah: An Archæological Commentary
Kugel, James L. The Bible as It Was
Kugel, James L. How to Read the Bible Laffey, Alice L. An Introduction to the Old Testament: A Feminist Perspective
Lambert, Neal E. Literature of Belief: Sacred Scripture and Religious Experience
Landy, Francis. Paradoxes of Paradise: Identity and Difference in the Song of Songs
Lods, Adolphe. Israel
Lods, Adolphe. The Prophets and the Rise of Judaism
Maly, Eugene H. The World of David and Solomon
Mays, James Luther & Paul J. Achtmeier. Interpreting the Prophets
McCurley, Foster R. Ancient Myths and Biblical Faith: Scriptural Transformations
McKeating, Henry. Studying the Old Testament
McKenzie, John L. A Theology of the Old Testament
McKenzie, John L. The World of the Judges
Meyers, Carol L. Discovering Eve: Ancient Israelite Women in Context
Miller, J. Maxwell. A History of Ancient Israel and Judah
Miller, J. Maxwell. The Old Testament and the Historian
Miller, Patrick D. Jr., Paul D. Hanson, & S. Dan McBride. Ancient Israelite Religion
Miscall, Peter D. The Workings of Old Testament Narrative
Moore, George Foot. The Literature of the Old Testament
Moore, Stephen D. Literary Criticism and the Gospels: The Theoretical Challenge
Mould, Elmer W.K. The Essentials of Bible History
Neusner, Jacob. Scriptures of the Oral Torah: Sanctification and Salvation in the Sacred Books of Judaism.
Nickelsburg , George W. E. & Michael E. Stone. Faith and Piety in Early Judaism: Texts and Documents
Niditch, Susan. Chaos to Cosmos: Studies Biblical Patterns of Creation
Niditch, Susan. Underdogs and Tricksters: A Prelude to Biblical Folklore
Noth, Martin. Exodus: A Commentary
Noth, Martin. History of Israel
Noth, Martin. Leviticus: A Commentary
Noth, Martin. Numbers: A Commentary
Ohler, Annemarie. Studying the Old Testament from Tradition to Canon
Orlinsky, H. M. et al. Studies on the second Part of the Book of Isaiah
Polzin, Robert. Moses and the Deuteronomist: A Literary Study of the Deuteronomic History
Prewitt, Terry J. The Elusive Covenant: A Structural-Semiotic Reading of Genesis
Pritchard, James B. Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament
Pritchard, James B. Archaeology and the Old Testament
Pritchard, James B. The Ancient Near East in Pictures: Supplementary Texts and Pictures Relating to the Old Testament
Rattey, Beatrice K. A Short History of the Hebrews from the Patriarchs to Herod
Rendtorff, Rolf. The Old Testament: An Introduction
Rhein, Francis Bayard. Understanding the New Testament.
Robert, Andre & Andre Feuillet. Introduction to the Old Testament
Robinson, Bernard P. Israel’s Mysterious God: An Analysis of Some Old Testament Narratives
Robinson, H. Wheeler. History of Israel
Robinson, H. Wheeler. Inspiration and Revelation in the Old Testament
Robinson, Theodore Henry. The Poetry of the Old Testament
Rosenberg, David. The Book of J.
Rosenberg, David. Congregation: Contemporary Writers Read the Jewish Bible
Rosenberg, Joel. King and Kin: Political Allegory in the Hebrew Bible
Rowley, Harold H. Worship in Ancient Israel: Its Forms and Meaning
Sandmel, Samuel. Old Testament Issues
Silver, Daniel Jeremy. Images of Moses
Silver, Daniel Jeremy. The Story of Scripture: from Oral Tradition to the Written Word
Schoors, Antoon. I am God Your Saviour: A Form-Critical Study of the Main Genres in Is. xl-lv
Smith, Mark S., The Early History of God: Yahweh and the Other Deities in Ancient Israel
Soggin, Jan Alberto. Introduction to the Old Testament : Third Edition (outstanding, up-to-date, scholarly)
Soggs, H. W. F. The Encounter with the Divine in Mesopotamia and Israel
Stiebling, William H. Out of the Desert? Archaeology and the Exodus/Conquest Narratives
Stolz, Fritz. Interpreting the Old Testament (excellent introduction)
Thompson, J. A. The Bible and Archæology
Tigay, Jeffrey H. Empirical Models for Biblical Criticism
Trawick, Buckner B. The Bible as Literature, Old Testament
Trible, Phyllis: God and the Rhetoric of Sexuality
Vawter, Bruce. On Genesis: A New Reading
Villard Books. The Glory of the Old Testament
Von Rad, Gerhard. Holy War in Ancient Israel
Wallace, Howard N. The Eden Narrative
Weiser, Artur. The Psalms: A Commentary
Wesling, Donald & Tadeusz Stawek. Literary Voice: The Calling of Jonah
Williams, Jay G. Understanding the Old Testament
Whybray, Roger Norman: Isaiah 40-66
Wright, G. Ernest. Biblical Archaeology
The Glory of the Old Testament


Jewish Apocrypha & Intertestamental Period:

Barnstone, Willis. The Other Bible
Charles, R.H. The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha (2 vols)
Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: Apocalyptic Literature & Testaments
Nickelsburg , George W. E. Jewish Literature Between the Bible and the Mishnah: A Historical and Literary Introduction
Russell, D. S. Between the Testaments
Russell, D. S. The Method and Message of Jewish Apocalyptic: 200 B.C.-A.D. 100
Sanders, E. P. Judaism: Practice and Belief, 63 BCE-66 CE


Christian Scriptures:

Aune, David E. Prophecy in Early Christianity and the Ancient Mediterranean World
Aune, David Edward. The New Testament in its Literary Environment
Bainton, Roland H. The Horizon History of Christianity
Bammel, Ernst & C.F. D. Moule, eds. Jesus and the Politics of His Day
Barth, Karl. Epistle to the Romans
Baxter, Margaret. The Formation of the Christian Scriptures
Beardslee, W. A. Literary Criticism of the New Testament
Blomberg, Craig. The Historical Reliability of the Gospels
Boer, Pieter Arie Hendrik de. Second-Isaiah’s Message
Bonsirven, Joseph. Palestinian Judaism in the Time of Jesus Christ
Bokser, Ben Zion. Judaism and the Christian Predicament
Borg, Marcus J., ed. Jesus at 2000
Brandon, S.G.F. Jesus and the Zealots (very controversial)
Brown, Raymond E. The Birth of the Messiah: A Commentary on the Infancy Narratives in Matthew and Luke
Brown, Raymond Edward. The Death of the Messiah: from Gethsemane to the Grave: a Commentary on the Passion Narratives in the Four Gospels
Brownrigg, Ronald. Twelve Apostles (unreliable, but with fine pictures and much interesting material)
Burce, Frederick Fyvie. The Epistle of Paul to the Romans: An Introduction and Commentary
Bultmann, Rudolf. Theology of the New Testament (a masterpiece of scholarship; anything by Bultmann is of the first importance; he has immense influence)
Bultmann, Rudolf. Primitive Christianity In Its Contemporary Setting
Burrows, Millar. The Dead Sea Scrolls: More Light on the Dead Sea Scrolls
Cassidy, Richard J. Jesus, Politics, and Society: A Study of Luke’s Gospel
Charlesworth, James H. Jesus and the Dead Sea Scrolls
Coenen, et al. The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology
Collins, Adela Yarbro. Cosmology and Eschatology in Jewish and Christian Apocalypticism
Connick, C. Milo. Jesus: The Man, The Mission, and the Message
Conzelmann, Hans. 1 Corinthians: A Commentary on the First Epistle to the Corinthians
Conzelmann, Hans. Jesus: Outline of the Theology of the New Testament (Standard text by a student of Bultmann)
Crossan, John Dominic. The Cross that Spoke: The Origins of the Passion Narrative
Crossan, John Dominic. The Historical Jesus: The Life of a Mediterranean Jewish Peasant. BT301.2 .C76 1992 Crossan, John Dominic. Jesus: A Revolutionary Biography
Dibelius, Martin & Werner Kümmel. Paul (anything else by Dibelius)
Dodd, Charles Harold. The Interpretation of the Fourth Gospel
Dodd, Charles Harold. Parables of the Kingdom
Duke, Paul. D. Irony in the Fourth Gospel
Edwards, Richard A. A Theology of Q: Eschatology, Prophecy, and Wisdom
Ellul, Jacques. Apocalypse: The book of Revelation
Enslin, Morton Scott. New Testament Beginnings: The Prophet from Nazareth
Evely, Louis. The Gospels Without Myth (liberal Catholic)
Fenton, J. C. The Gospel of St. Matthew
France, R. t. and David Wenham. Gospel Perspectives: Studies of History and Tradition in the Four Gospels
Furnish, V. P. Theology and Ethics in Paul
Gager, John G. Kingdom and Community: The Social World of Early Christianity
Grant, Frederick Clifton. Roman Hellenism and the New Testament
Grant, Frederick. Roman Hellenism and the New Testament
Grant, Michael. Jesus
Grant, Michael. Saint Paul
Gunther, John J. St. Paul’s Opponents and Their Background: A Study of Apocalyptic and Jewish Sectarian Teachings
Habermas, Gar R. Ancient Evidence for the Life of Jesus
Hagner, Donald Alfred. The Jewish Reclamation of Jesus: An Analysis and Critique of Modern Jewish Study of Jesus
Hanson< Richard P. Studies in Christian Antiquity
Helms, Randel. Gospel Fictions
Hengel, Martin. Between Jesus and Paul: Studies in the Earliest History of Christianity
Hengel, Martin. Studies in the Gospel of Mark
Hoffmann,m R. Joseph and Gerald A. Laure. Jesus in History and Myth
Hooker, Morna Dorothy. New Wine in Old Bottles: A Discussion of Continuity and Discontinuity in Relation to Judaism and the Gospel
Hooker, Morna Dorothy. Studying the New Testament
Jacobson, Arland Dean. The First Gospel: An Introduction to Q
Jeremias, Joachim. Rediscovering the Parables (a classic)
Kee, Howard Clark. Medicine, Miracle and Magic in New Testament Times
Johnson, Luke Timothy. The Real Jesus: The Misguided Quest for the Historical Jesus and the Truth of the Traditional Gospels.
Kee, Howard Clark. Miracle in the Early Christian World: A Study in Sociohistorical Method
Kelber, Werner H. The Passion in Mark
Kinneavy, James L. Greek Rhetorical Origins of Christian Faith
Klausner, Joseph. From Jesus to Paul
Kloppenborg, John S. Excavating Q: The History and Setting of the Sayings Gospel.
Kloppenborg, John S. The Formation of Q: Trajectories in Ancient Wisdom Collections.
Knox, John. Chapters in a Life of Paul
Koester, Helmut. Ancient Christian Gospels: Their History and Development
Kümmel, Werner G. Introduction to the New Testament
Lachs, Samuel Tobias. A Rabbinic Commentary on the New Testament: The Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke
Lapide, Pinchas. The Resurrection of Jesus: A Jewish Perspective
Lapide, Pinchas. The Sermon on the Mount: Utopia or Program for Action?
Lohse, Edward. New Testament Environment
Maccoby, Hyam. The Mythmaker: Paul and the Invention of Christianity
Manson, Thomas Walter. The Teachings of Jesus: Studies of Its Form and Content
Martin, Francis. Narrative Parallels to the New Testament
Marxsen, Willi. Mark the Evangelist
Meeks, Wayne A. The Writings of St. Paul
Miller, Robert J., ed. The Complete Gospels: Annotated Scholars Version
Moore, Arthur Lewis. The Parousia in the New Testament.
Moore, George Foot. Judaism in the First Centuries of the Christian Era
Moule, C. F. D. Essays in New Testament Interpretation
Neil, William. The Acts of the Apostles
Neusner, Jacob: Judaism in the Matrix of Christianity
Newbigin, Lesslie. The Light Has Come: An Exposition of the Fourth Gospel
Nineham, Dennis Eric. St. Mark
Nuttall, Geoffrey Fillingham. The Moment of Recognition: Luke as Story-Teller
Pagels, Elaine. Adam, Eve, and the Serpent
Panagaopoulos, J. Prophetic Vocation in the New Testament and Today
Pancaro, Severino. The Law in the Fourth Gospel: The Torah and the Gospel, Moses and Jesus, Judaism and Christianity According to John
Pawlikowski, John. Christ in the Light of the Christian-Jewish Dialogue
Pervo, Richard I. Profit with Delight: The Literary Genre of the Acts of the Apostles.
Pritchard, John Paul. A Literary Approach to the New Testament (excellent)
Rivkin, Ellis. What Crucified Jesus?
Robinson, James McConkey. A New Quest of the Historical Jesus and Other Essays
Robinson, James McConkey. The Problem of History in Mark
Rowland, Christopher. Christian Origins: An Account of the Setting and Character of the Most Important Messianic Sect of Judaism
Sanders, E. P. Jesus and Judaism
Sanders, E. P. Paul, the Law, and the Jewish People
Sandmel, Samuel. A Jewish Understanding of the New Testament
Sandmel, Samuel. We Jews and Jesus
Sandmel, Samuel.. The Genius of Paul
Sanders, E. P. The Historical Figure of Jesus
Schaberg, Jane. The Illegitimacy of Jesus: A Feminist Theological Interpretation of the Infancy Narratives
Schoeps, Hans Joachim. Paul: The Theology of the Apostle in the Light of Jewish History (Lutheran, but excellent)
Schrage, Wolfgang. The Ethics of the New Testament
Schweizer, Eduard. Jesus
Schüssler Fiorenza, Elisabeth: In Memory of Her: A Feminist Theological Reconstruction of Christian Origins
Schüssler Fiorenza, Elisabeth: The Book of Revelation: Justice and Judgment
Segundo, Juan Luis. The Historical Jesus of the Synoptics
Sheehan, Thomas. The First Coming: How the Kingdom of God Became Christianity
Spivey, Robert A. Anatomy of the New Testament: A guide to its Structure and Meaning
Stambaugh, John E. The New Testament in Its Social Environment
Stanton, Graham N. The Gospels and Jesus
Stevens, Arnold & Ernest Dewitt Burton. A Harmony of the Gospels (Useful for comparing the four gospels with each other)
Stewart, Desmond. The Foreigner: A Search for the First Century Jesus
Talbert, Charles Reading Corinthians: A Literary and Theological Commentary on 1 and 2 Corinthians
Tannehill, Robert C. The Narrative Unity of Luke-Acts: A Literary Interpretation
Taylor, Michael J. A Companion to Paul: Readings in Pauline Theology
Theissen, Gerd. Miracle Stories of the Early Christian Tradition.
Theissen, Gerd. Sociology of Early Palestinian Christianity
Theissen, Gerd. The Shadow of the Galilean: The Quest of the Historical Jesus in Narrative Form
Tyson, Joseph B. The Death of Jesus in Luke-Acts
Vanderlip, D. George. Christianity According to John
Vermes, Geza. Jesus and the World of Judaism
Vermes, Geza. Jesus the Jew (outstanding study of Talmudic materials)
Wells, G. A. The Historical Evidence for Jesus
Villard Books. The Glory of the New Testament
Wilson, Edmund. The Dead Sea Scrolls 1947-1957 (a revised version of this famous work
Witherington, Ben. The Jesus Quest: The Third Search for the Jew of Nazareth
Witherington, Ben. Women in the Ministry of Jesus
Wolfe, Rolland. The Twelve Religions of the Bible
Zeitlin, Solomon. Who Crucified Jesus? (contains much excellent background material besides giving a treatment of this particular question)

Christian Apocrypha:

Beskow, Per. Strange Tales About Jesus: A Survey of Unfamiliar Gospels
Hennecke, Edgar. New Testament Apocrypha (2 vols.
Herford, R. Travers.Talmud and Apocrypha
Meyr, Marvin. W. The Secret Teachings of Jesus: Four Gnostic Gospels
Pagels, Elaine: The Gnostic Gospels
Patterson, Stephen J. The Gospel of Thomas and Jesus

You may also use any book listed in Harris, Understanding the Bible.

Recommended Website:
From Jesus to Christ (PBS)


Compiled by Paul Brians

Last updated December 27, 2007