(Duiker: Preface & other introductory material through p, xxxi, pp. 1-5)

Questions for quiz: *In what sort of geographical environment did the first civilizations emerge? What common characteristics did the first civilizations have? *When and where do most scientists believe Homo sapiens sapiens first emerged? *What were the main characteristics of the Neanderthals? How many species of human beings are alive today? *What were the main characteristics of humans in the Paleolithic Age? *What roles did women play in the Paleolithic Age? *What were the two most important technological innovations of Paleolithic peoples? Lecture topics:

    • Evidence for evolution
    • Tracing features which lead toward modern humans
    • Origins of humanity
  • Australopithecus afarensis
  • Homo erectus
  • Homo sapiens
  • Homo sapiens neanderthalensis
  • Homo sapiens sapiens
    • Evidence of culture
    • Religion
    • Art

Chart for today’s lecture:

  • 1. Comparison of three Hominid skulls from East Africa. Left to right: Afarensis (Lucy), Homo Erectus, Homo Sapiens.
  • 2. Hand (opposable thumb)
  • 3. Erect Posture & Bipedalism
  • 4. Face: jaw & teeth, facial angle, chin, eyes
  • 5. Throat: larynx 6. Heat diffusion capabilities
  • 7. Sexual characterstics
  • 8. Neoteny (retention of juvenile characteristics)

Helpful Hints:

Look for aspects of this material relevant to the subject of making civilization, like

  • intelligence
  • tool-making ability
  • communication

Supplementary material:

Return to syllabus