(Duiker 40-47, 51; Brians 142-145)


Questions about Duiker: *What were the traditional five major castes and what were their functions? *What disadvantages were there in being an untouchable? Why did the caste system survive for so many centuries? *Describe the roles of women in ancient India.

Questions about The Arthashastra: What is one way in which Kautilya advises the king to spy on his subjects? *What practical argument does Kautilya offer the king for supporting poor farmers (“cultivators”)? *In what ways did caste affect the way slaves were to be treated?

Lecture topics:
Arians and Dravidians
Historical background
Caste system
Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, Sudras
Major values
The Vedas
Chandragupta Maurya and Kautalya’s Arthashastra
The Guptas
Greek influence

Chart for today’s lecture:

General outline of Indian history:

c. 3000-1500 BCE: Indus civilization
c. 1500-500 BCE: Aryan invasions
c. 500 BCE-CE 647 Age of empires
647-1206 Hindu principalities and Muslim (Turkic) incursions
c. 712 Arab conquest of Sind (present.day SE Pakistan)
1206-1526 Delhi sultanate
1526-1707 The Great Mughals


Supplementary materials:

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