(Duiker: 28-42, 63-65)

Questions about Duiker: How did the Assyrian military machine create a climate of terror? What were some of the boasts of the Assyrian kings? In what ways did the Assyrians continue Mesopotamian culture? *What kinds of scenes were depicted in Assyrian palace reliefs? Who were the Chaldeans? What were the main achievements of Cyrus? What was the attitude of the Hebrews toward him? *Why is Zoroaster important? Who are the Dravidians and Aryans? *What are some of the main characteristics of Harappa? *Describe one piece of art from Harappa or Mohenjo-Daro. What was the first state to unify most of China under a single ruler? *What are “oracle bones?” What were some of the religious beliefs of the Shang? What is the best-known sort of art made by the Shang?

Lecture Topics:
Near Eastern Empires:

  • Note sequence of empires, common artistic themes.
  • Old Babylon
    • Distinguish Old Babylon from Neobabylon.
  • Assyria
    • Note main characteristics of Assyrians, why people rejoiced to see them overthrown.


  • Relationship to Jews


  • Cyrus, relationship to Jews,
  • Greeks.

Indus Civilization

  • Period covered,
  • relationship to later Indian culture, to Mesopotamia.
  • Harappa
  • Mohenjo-Daro

Shang China

  • Achievements in bronze
  • Human sacrifice.
  • Writing

Helpful Hints

  • Memorize this chronological sequence: Sumer, Akkad (Old Babylon), Assyra, Babylon, Persia.
  • Note which artistic and other themes continue throughout Mesopotamian civilizations.
  • Note the evidence for a strong centralized government in the Indus civilization.
  • Note the importance of Chinese ideographs and how they differ from Mesopotamian written languages.

Supplementary materials:

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